Artículos científicos SCI
- Susceptibility to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) of different Vitis varieties.
- Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen. (2014)
Crop Protection 63: 26-35 (2014). DOI: 10.1016/j.cropro.2014.04.018.
The susceptibility of different varieties of Vitis vinifera and other Vitis species to downy mildew (caused by Plasmopara viticola) in field, greenhouse and laboratory tests was compared over a period of three years. Different degrees of susceptibility were detected. The most susceptible V. vinifera varieties were ‘Treixadura’ and ‘Albariño; ‘Cabernet Sauvignon’, ‘Mencía’ and ‘Chasselas Doré’ were the least susceptible. The non-vinifera varieties showed no symptoms of downy mildew in the field. Surprisingly, in laboratory and greenhouse tests, the rootstock 110-R was much more susceptible to infection than S04. No relationship was seen between susceptibility and berry colour, or the time of sprouting or fruit ripening. Neither was any correlation seen between susceptibility and the condition of being a traditional or introduced variety. Better knowledge of the susceptibility to downy mildew of different varieties would allow for growers and breeders to select those that are more resistant.
- Works of Art and Crop History: Grapevine Varieties and the Baroque Altarpieces.
- Gago Montaña, Pilar; Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen. (2014)
Economic Botany 68 (2): 153-168 (2014). DOI: 10.1007/s12231-014-9265-8.
El presente trabajo compara a nivel ampelográfico las hojas adultas y los racimos de variedades de vid reales con aquellos que aparecen representados en las columnas salomónicas de ciertos retablos barrocos. En un trabajo preliminar publicado anteriormente los autores habían concluido que las hojas esculpidas en estos retablos barrocos están representadas con una gran precisión botánica y por lo tanto podrían estar representando a variedades reales. La vid es un elemento decorativo muy importante en este tipo de obras de arte, en particular como decoración de las columnas de estilo salomónico. El presente trabajo examina un mayor número de retablos e incluye el estudio de los racimos. Seis variedades reales de vid han sido identificadas en otros tantos retablos lo que les aporta nuevos valores culturales y permite demostrar su existencia en la zona vitícola en el siglo XVII. Otras variedades podrían ser también identificadas en retablos barrocos localizados en otras zonas vitícolas diferentes siguiendo la misma metodología. Estos resultados podrían abrir las puertas para que otros investigadores utilicen fuentes de información menos convencionales en el estudio de la evolución de la agricultura y la historia de los diferentes cultivos.
- Comparative ampelographic and genetic analysis of grapevine cultivars from Algeria and Morocco.
- Zinelabidine, Lalla Hasna; Laiadi, Z.; Benmehaia, R; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Boso Alonso, Susana; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Haddioui, A; Ibáñez Marcos, Javier; Martínez-Zapater, José M.; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen. (2014)
Australian Journal of Grape and Wine Research 20(2): 324-333 (2014). DOI: 10.1111/ajgw.12079.
Background and Aims: North Africa has a long history of viticulture and a wide diversity of grape cultivars. Ampelographic studies have been made of grapevine cultivars grown all over the world, but only a few describe those of Algeria and Morocco. Many Maghrebi cultivars held in germplasm banks or found growing wild in this region have recently been subjected to microsatellite profiling by different researchers, though little comparative analysis has been undertaken. The aim of the present work was to clarify the identity of the grapevine cultivars growing in the Maghreb via ampelographic and single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Methods and Results: Seventy-one accessions were studied through the ampelographic construction of their mean leaves, via genotypic analysis using single-nucleotide polymorphism markers, and the comparison of these results with previously reported single sequence repeat marker profiles and ampelographic data for other grapevine material from the Maghreb. Conclusion: New synonyms and homonyms were detected between Maghrebi cultivars. Some misinterpretations and errors of identification made during the making of the studied germplasm collections were identified. Significance of the Study: This study helps clarify the confusion over the identity of Algerian and Moroccan grapevine cultivars and provides a general picture of grapevine diversity in the Maghreb. © 2014 Australian Society of Viticulture and Oenology Inc.
- Classification and characterization of different white grape juices by using a hybrid electronic tongue.
- Gutiérrez Capitán, Manuel; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Vila-Planas, Jordi; Llovera, Andreu; Boso Alonso, Susana; Gago Montaña, Pilar; Martinez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Jiménez Jorquera, Cecilia. (2013)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (39): 9325- 9332 (2013). DOI: 10.1021/jf402960q.
A multisensor system combined with multivariate analysis is applied for the characterization and classification of white grape juices. The proposed system, known as hybrid electronic tongue, consists of an array of electrochemical microsensors and a colorimetric optofluidic system. A total of 25 white grape juices representing the large variability of vines grown in the Northwest Iberian Peninsula were studied. The data obtained were treated with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA). The first tool was used to train the system with the reference genotypes -Albariño, Muscat à Petit Grains Blanc and Palomino- and the second to study the feasibility of the hybrid electronic tongue to distinguish between different grape juice varieties. The results show that the three reference genotypes are well differentiated in the PCA model and this can be used to interpolate the rest of varieties and predict their basic characteristics. Besides, using the SIMCA, the system demonstrates high potential for classifying and discriminating grape varieties. © 2013 American Chemical Society.
- Impact of clonal variability in Vitis vinifera cabernet franc on grape composition, wine quality, leaf blade stilbene content, and downy mildew resistance.
- Van Leeuwen, Cornelis; Roby, Jean-Philippe; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Gindro, Katia. (2013)
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 61 (1): 19- 24 (2013). DOI: 10.1021/jf304687c.
In this study, 10 clones of Vitis vinifera Cabernet franc (not yet commercial) have been phenotyped on precocity, grape composition, and assessment of wine quality made by microvinification in 2008-2010. Additionally, two original criteria have been considered: concentration of 3-isobutyl-2- methoxypyrazine (IBMP) in grapes and wines (the green bell pepper flavor) and resistance of grapevines to downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) by stilbene quantification upon infection. Precocity of veraison varied up to four days at veraison. Berry size and yield were highly variable among clones. However, these variables were not correlated. Tanins and anthocyanins varied among clones in grapes and wines. Variations in grape and wine IBMP were not significant. Some clones showed lower susceptibility for downy mildew on leaves. Lower susceptibility was linked to a higher production of stilbenic phytoalexins involved in downy mildew resistance mechanisms.
- Evolution of flavonoids in Mouratón berries taken from both bunch halves.
- Figueiredo-González, M.; Cancho-Grande; Boso Alonso, Susana; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Simal-Gándara, J. (2013)
Food Chemistry 138 (2-3): 1868- 1877 (2013). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.11.083.
Galicia (N.W. Spain) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. There are autochthonous grapevine varieties, such as Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mouratón, considered a biodiversity resource in viticulture and an opportunity for Galician sustainable wine production. Therefore, it is necessary to assess the potential of traditional cultivars to produce quality red wines. In this work, anthocyanin and flavonol evolution was followed in red berries from V. vinifera L. cv. Mouratón. The novelty of this study is that grapes were separately collected from two different positions (tips and shoulders) within the cluster, over ripening to examine the effects of berry position within the fruit cluster on the flavonoid compounds.
Derivatives of five anthocyanins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin and cyanidin) and derivatives of six flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempherol, laricitrin isorhamnetin and syringetin) were detected in both positions within the cluster. Dynamic of anthocyanins (from 819 mg/kg to 1206 mg/kg in tips; and from 786 mg/kg to 1077 mg/kg in shoulders) and dynamic of flavonols (from 25 mg/kg to 41 mg/kg in tips; and from 18 mg/kg to 21 mg/kg in shoulders) confirmed their upward trends over ripening. Grapes located inside the shoulder bunch receive less sunlight radiation than those located inside the tip bunch and this fact could explain the different accumulation observed for both positions. These results can be useful for winemakers in order to obtain different final red wine quality.
- Protease inhibitors decrease the resistance of Vitaceae to Plasmopara viticola.
- Gindro, Katia; Berger, Valentine; Godard, Sophie; Voinesco, Francine; Schnee, Sylvain; Viret, Olivier; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia. (2012)
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 60: 74- 80 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2012.07.028.
Plasmopara viticola must successfully infect susceptible grapevine cultivars to complete its biological cycle. In resistant grapevine varieties, P. viticola is blocked by the activation of defense mechanisms; these defense mechanisms produce hypersensitive reactions, which are related to programmed cell death. In animals, programmed cell death is dependent on caspase activities. In plants, different caspase-like proteases assume the same functions. To examine the roles of caspase-like proteases in P. viticola-grapevine interactions, three varieties of grapevine with different levels of P. viticola resistance were chosen. These grapevine varieties were treated with either PMSF, a serine protease inhibitor, or E-64, a cysteine protease inhibitor. The development of the pathogen was followed microscopically, and the plant defense reactions were estimated through stilbene quantification. Both protease inhibitor treatments increased the infection rate in the resistant and immune varieties, diminished the production of toxic stilbenes and changed the level of the plants’ susceptibility to the pathogen. In particular, after either protease treatment, the cultivar that was originally immune became resistant (hyphae and haustoria were observed), the resistant cultivar reached the level of a susceptible cultivar (sporulation was observed) and the susceptible cultivar became more sensitive (P. viticola colonized the entirety of the leaf mesophyll). © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS.
- Floral, spicy and herbaceous active odorants in Gran Negro grapes from shoulders and tips into the cluster, and comparison with Brancellao and Mouratón varieties.
- Noguerol Pato, R.; González Barreiro, C.; Cancho Grande, B.; Martinez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Simal-Gándara, J. (2012)
Food Chemistry 135 (4): 2771- 2782 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.06.104.
Within the framework of a more and more competitive market, the opportunity to obtain different wines from the same variety cultivated in the same vineyard is becoming of increasing importance. In this study the presence of aroma compounds in Gran Negro (Vitis vinifera L.) grapes was investigated in order to obtain its aroma potential fingerprint taking into consideration the separation of apical (tips) and basal (shoulders) berries of the clusters. In the final stages of maturation, differences were searched in the probable alcohol content, total acidity of the must, as well as in the aromatic composition of skin and flesh from shoulder and cluster tip berries. A GC-MS method was used to determine the aromatic composition. The obtained results showed that there was variability for their aromatic composition. These results are promising for those wine cellars that are considering the separation of berries from tips and shoulders of the clusters for the elaboration of wines with different qualities. For the berries from the tips of the clusters, aromatic alcohols and volatile phenols were mainly found in the flesh (15 and 2 times higher than in the skin, respectively); whereas aldehydes and C6 alcohols were mainly in the skin (4 and 3 times higher than in the flesh, respectively). For this reason, it could be recommended to separate berry skin before enzymatic maceration of the berry flesh must. For the berries from the shoulders of the clusters, the group of volatile phenols showed 2 times more concentration in the skin than in the flesh; it could be recommended to maintain berry skin during enzymatic maceration of the must. Overall, the tips showed a 40% lower level of C6 alcohols (contributing to herbaceous nuances). These results from Gran Negro were compared with those of Brancellao and Mouratón cultivars. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Anthocyanins and flavonols berries from Vitis vinifera L. cv. Brancellao separately collected from two different positions within the cluster.
- Figueiredo-González, M.; Simal-Gándara, J.; Boso Alonso, Susana; Martinez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Cancho-Grande, B. (2012)
Food Chemistry 135 (1): 47- 56 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.04.054.
Galicia (N.W. Iberian Peninsula) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mencía is one of the most often used to produce quality red wines in the five Galicia Denomination of Origin. However, there are traditional cultivars such as Brancellao, which were not exploited for their potential to produce quality red wines. Dynamics of anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation were studied separately in two different positions within the cluster (tips and shoulders), during 30 days before harvest. The objective of separating berries is to assess the existence of different polyphenol quality in both positions; as a consequence, the selection and harvest of those berries with a higher content of anthocyanins and flavonols could produce red wines with different qualities. Derivatives of five anthocyanins (malvidin, peonidin, petunidin, delphinidin and cyanidin) were detected in skins at both positions within the cluster. Anthocyanin contents stabilized in the 30 days prior to harvest in the berries from the shoulders whereas they continue to increase in those from the tips. Derivatives of six flavonols (quercetin, myricetin, kaempherol, laricitrin, isorhamnetin and syringetin) were detected in skin and flesh at both positions within the cluster. Dynamics of anthocyanins (from 400 to 515 mg/kg in tips; and from 598 to 574 mg/kg in shoulders) and flavonols (from 19 to 29.3 mg/kg in tips; and from 22.7 to 29.4 mg/kg in shoulders) over ripening confirmed that these polyphenols presented upward trends. Therefore, it is not necessary to harvest Brancellao berries separately and a high quality red wine will be obtained with berries from entire clusters regarding these compounds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Quantification of stilbenes in Vitis genotypes with different levels of resistance to Plasmopara viticola infection.
- Boso Alonso, Susana; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Martinez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Kassemeyer, Hanns-Heinz. (2012)
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture 63: 419- 423 (2012). DOI: 10.5344/ajev.2012.11127.
Stilbenic phytoalexins have been associated with disease resistance. In Vitis spp., stilbene synthesis can be induced by UV irradiation, treatment with a variety of substance extracts, and inoculation with Botrytis cinerea or Plasmopara viticola. The aim of the present work was to examine the relationship between stilbene production and the level of resistance of different Vitis genotypes to P. viticola. The ability of different grapevine genotypes (Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Tempranillo, Touriga Nacional, Pinot noir, and Cabernet Sauvignon and Vitis riparia cv. Gloire de Montpellier) to resist Plasmopara viticola infection was assessed via their potential to accumulate toxic stilbenic phytoalexins. Leaf discs taken from plants belonging to these genotypes were inoculated with P. viticola sporangia and disease severity was determined five days later. Stilbene production was quantified in similar leaf material at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hr postinoculation. After P. viticola infection, the resistant genotype V. riparia showed high production of the phytotoxic stilbenes ε- and δ-viniferin, which limited the development of the pathogen and prevented it from producing spores. Indeed, this genotype was associated with the lowest sporulation values. No relationship was observed, however, between resistance and these compounds in the V. vinifera genotypes. Further study is required to define the role of stilbenic phytoalexins in resistance to P. viticola. © 2012 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.
- Flavonoids in Gran Negro berries collected from shoulders and tips within the cluster, and comparison with Brancellao and Mouratón varieties.
- Figueiredo-González, M.; Simal-Gándara, J.; Boso Alonso, Susana; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Cancho-Grande, B. (2012)
133: 806-815 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.095.
Galicia (the north-western corner of Spain) is a Spanish region with several old-traditional winegrowing areas. Vitis vinifera L. cv. Mencía is one of the most often used to produce quality red wines but the tendency of the world wine-making market is to reward the production of wines that have particular and differentiated characteristics. In Galicia, there are other red cultivars such as Gran Negro which were not exploited for their potential to produce quality red wines. Dynamics of anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in Gran Negro berries were studied separately in two different positions within the cluster (tips and shoulders) during 30 days before harvest to assess the existence of different polyphenol quality in both positions and as a consequence, red wines with different qualities. Dynamics of anthocyanins over ripening confirmed that anthocyanins presented upward trends (from 1510 to 1727 mg/kg in tips; and from 1532 to 1728 mg/kg in shoulders) but dynamics of flavonols confirmed that maximum values were reached and stabilised thirty days before harvest (from 45 to 39 mg/kg in tips; and from 49 to 45 mg/kg in shoulders). No differences were observed in anthocyanin and flavonol contents collected from tips and shoulders which indicates that is not necessary to harvest them separately. The results from Gran Negro were compared with those of Brancellao and Mouratón. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Active odorants in Mouratón grapes from shoulders and tips into the bunch.
- Noguerol Pato, R.; González Barreiro, C.; Simal-Gándara, J.; Martinez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Cancho Grande, B. (2012)
Food Chemistry 133 (4): 1362- 1372 (2012). DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.01.113.
The opportunity for obtaining different wines from the same variety cultivated in the same vineyard is becoming of increasing importance. This is why some wine cellars have started to assay the separation of the tips and shoulders berries of the clusters of a specific variety with this objective. In this work, the study is focused on berries of Mouratón (Vitis vinifera L.) to investigate if, in the latter stages of ripening, differences exist in the probable alcoholic degree, total acidity of the must, as well as in the aromatic composition of skin and flesh of berries coming from the tips and shoulders of the clusters. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the aromatic composition. The obtained results showed that there was not variability for the probable alcoholic degree and total acidity between the tips and shoulders, whereas there was variability for their aromatic composition during ripening. These results are promising for those wine cellars that are considering the separation of berries from tips and shoulders of the clusters for the elaboration of different quality wines. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Susceptibility to downy mildew in grape clusters: New microscopical and biochemical insights.
- Gindro, Katia; Alonso-Villaverde Iglesias, Virginia; Voinesco, Francine; Spring, Jean-Laurent; Viret, Olivier; Dubuis, Pierre-Henri. (2012)
Plant physiology and biochemistry, 52: 140-146 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.plaphy.2011.12.009.
Grape clusters of different Vitis genotypes, including Vitis vinifera cvs Chasselas and Merlot, and two interspecific grape varieties, Solaris (cvs. Merzling* x (Saperavi severneyi x Muscat ottonel)) and 2091 (cvs. Gamaret x Bronner), are susceptible or resistant to downy mildew. These cultivars were inoculated with Plasmopara viticola at three developmental stages (BBCH stages 53, 69 and 75). Samples were examined by scanning electron microscopy and the synthesis of stilbenes was measured. Microscopical examinations of pedicels, rachis and calyptras showed important differences in stomatal structures within seasonal development. At BBCH 53, successful infections were observed on all tested cultivars and functional stomata were present, while no infections were observed after this stage. At BBCH 69 and 75, cracks were observed around the stomata and guard cells were unstructured or completely collapsed, leading to closed-like stomata. At BBCH 53, significant stilbene accumulation was quantified in 2091 and Solaris; pterostilbene and Î¿-viniferin were produced in large amounts. In the susceptible varieties, only piceid and resveratrol were induced. At the other two stages, the concentration of all measured stilbenes was undetectable. The critical roles of seasonal development and stilbenes in the resistance of grape clusters towards downy mildew are discussed. © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS.
- Aroma potential of Brancellao grapes from different cluster positions.
- Noguerol-Pato, R.; González-Barreiro, C.; Cancho-Grande, B.; Santiago Blanco, José Luis; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Simal-Gándara, J. (2012)
Food Chemistry, 132: 112-124 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2011.10.042.
In this study the presence of aroma compounds in grapes of Brancellao (Vitis vinifera L.) was investigated in order to obtain its aroma potential fingerprint. It is well known that differences exist in aromatic compounds amongst grapevine varieties at ripening stages. Within the framework of an increasingly competitive market, the chance of obtaining different wines from vines of the same variety grown at the same vineyard is becoming of increasing importance. This can be done through the managing of the vineyard, but also some wineries have assayed the separation of the tip and shoulder berries of the clusters of a specific variety with this objective. In this work it is evaluated that, in the final stages of maturation, differences exist in the probable alcoholic degree, total acidity of the must, as well as in the aromatic composition of skin and flesh of berries coming from the tips and shoulders of the clusters. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to determine the aromatic composition, in the skin and flesh of each sample, either tip or shoulder berries from the clusters. The obtained results showed that there was not variability for the probable alcoholic degree and total acidity between the shoulders and tips, whereas there was variability for their aromatic composition. For the berries from the tips of the clusters most of volatiles were found in the flesh (except aldehydes) and spicy and floral nuances (with the only exception of β-ionone) were in higher proportions. For the berries from the shoulders of the clusters, most of volatiles were found in the skin (monoterpenes, norisoprenoids, aldehydes, and C6 alcohols), where the flesh was slightly richer in aromatic alcohols, volatile phenols and pantolactone; β-ionone and herbaceous nuances were in higher proportions. These results are promising for those wineries that are considering the chance of separating berries from tips and shoulders of the clusters for the elaboration of different quality wines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
- Influence of locally-selected yeast on the chemical and sensorial properties of Albariño white wines.
- Carrascosa, Alfonso V.; Bartolomé, Begoña; Juega, M.; Núñez Gutiérrez, Yolanda Pilar; Martínez Rodríguez, María del Carmen; Martínez-Rodríguez, Adolfo J. (2012)
Food Science and Technology 46(1): 319-325 (2012) DOI: 10.1016/j.lwt.2011.09.011.
The use of selected yeast strains with improved or novel properties may promote wines with special and original quality attributes. In this paper, changes in the chemical composition (aroma compounds and polyphenols) and sensorial properties of Albariño white wines elaborated with the same must and selected yeast (named as 1, 2 and 3) have been studied in comparison with wines subjected to non-inoculated fermentation (control wine). The results indicated that yeast strain can significantly influence the aroma and polyphenol composition of the wines. Wines elaborated with strain 1 had a higher concentration of terpenes and norisoprenoids, which are compounds closely associated with the fruity and fresh character of Albariño white wines. These same wines had a lower concentration of flavan-3-ols, closely associated with the astringency and bitterness of the wine and the lowest browning potential. The formal sensory analysis conducted by 8 trained judges showed that wines elaborated with strain 1 were preferred by the tasting panel. Therefore, the selection of yeast strains could offer the possibility to modulate sensorial attributes related with the aroma and phenol composition in Albariño white wines. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
- Identity of three grapevine varieties from a rediscovered viticulture region in northwest Spain.
- Pilar Gago, José Luis Santiago, Susana Boso, Virginia Alonso-Villaverde, Ignacio Orriols, María del Carmen Martínez (2011)
Journal international des sciences de la vigne et du vin Vol 45, No 4 (2011) DOI: 10.20870/oeno-one.2011.45.4.1499.
The old literature contains references to the varieties once cultivated in the Betanzos region (northwestern Spain) and three of them (Blanco Legítimo, Agudelo and Serradelo) were rediscovered
during a survey work that began in 1987 and now form part of a collection held at the Misión Biológica de Galicia (MBG-CSIC). The aims of the present work were 1) to describe these three varieties, 2) to determine whether grapevines recently planted are indeed true representatives of these varieties and if so 3) to examine their agronomic and oenological potential. Ampelographic descriptions were made following the OIV method (OIV, 2009) and the reconstruction of ‘mean leaves’ (Martínez and Grenan, 1999). Ten microsatellite loci were also characterised. Having confirmed the supposed identity of the vines in the vineyards, their agronomic and oenological potentials in the region were investigated (fertility, weight of fruit, composition of must and wine). The ampelographic and molecular results showed the following synonyms: Blanco Legítimo = Albarín Blanco; Serradelo = Brancellao (Spain) or synonym Alvarelhão (Portugal); Agudelo = Chenin Blanc. The vines supposed to be Blanco Legítimo and Agudelo recently planted in the Betanzos area had largely been correctly identified by their planters. The identification of synonyms has repercussions for the commercial exploitation of these varieties. The implications for Blanco Legítimo are relatively reduced since its synonyms are also grown in minority areas; however, for Serradelo and Agudelo they are more serious because their synonyms are varieties already widely grown. Finally, the present results contribute to our knowledge of the history and movement of grapevine cultivars in Europe.
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